34 Evidences For Joseph Smith’s Book of Abraham In Egyptology & Archaeology

1. The Facsimile 1 lion couch scene appears in an Egyptian
papyrus and references Abraham in the text below.

Leiden I 384 reads: “Let Abraham who… upon…” and then breaks off. It refers to this lion couch scene as “The sacrifice (or burning).” Abraham is written inside a cartouche, denoting royalty.

2. An inscription by Akkadian ruler Naram Sin gives the name of a field called Ulišim in Northwest Syria, where today stands a city Oylum, near Ebla. This perfectly matches “Olishem” from the Book of Abraham.

Execration texts from Sesostris III also name Ulišim near Ebla.

3. Zig-zag lines indeed referenced waters of the sky, and the vertical serekh lines indeed referenced the “pillars of heaven,” as told in the Book of Abraham.

“It is always assumed that the flat slab of iron which formed the sky, and therefore the floor of the abode of the gods, was rectangular, and that each corner of it rested upon a pillar. That this is a very ancient view concerning the sky is proved by the hieroglyphic which is used in texts to determine the words for rain, storm, and the like; here we have a picture of the sky falling and being pierced by the four pillars of heaven.” (E.W. Budge)

4. King Unas of Egypt is referred to as the crocodile god, like in Facsimile 1. Utterance 317: “Unas has come today from the overflowing flood, Unas is Sobk [crocodile god], green-plumed, wakeful, alert… Unas has come to his streams.”
5. The three figures to the right in Facsimile 2 represent the god srpt-m3i-sr. This god is associated with Abraham in the Demotic Magical Papyrus of London and Leiden: “Abraham, the apple (?) of the Eye of the Uzat… srpt-m3i-sr is thy name”.
6. Facsimile 2 is a Hypocephalus, a circle that “represented all that the sun encircles—the world of the living, over which it passed during the day, was depicted in the upper half, and that of the dead, which it crossed during the night.” The recently discovered Apocalypse of Abraham references this world circle, and talks about it in the same context as Joseph Smith’s interpretation for Facsimile 2:

“…you may be able to see in heaven, and upon earth, and in the sea, and in the abyss, and in the under-world, and in the Garden of Eden, and in its rivers, and in the fullness of the whole world and its circle… Look now beneath your feet at the firmaments and understand the creation represented and foreshadowed in this expanse.”

7. An Egyptian text associates Abraham with the hypocephalus in Facsimile 2:

“O Khopr-Khopri-Khopr [creator god], Abraham, the pupil of the wedjat-eye, four-fold Qmr 8, creator of the mouth, who created creation, great verdant creation.” (PDMxiv 228–29)

The Facsimile 2 Hypocephalus is called “the pupil of the wedjat-eye” in Book of the Dead 162-63, and according to Joseph Smith it is all about creation. Facsimile 2 says the wedjet-eye is “the grand Key-words of the Holy Priesthood, as revealed to… Abraham, and all to whom the priesthood was revealed.”
8. We now know that Egyptians practiced human sacrifice, which involved funerary vessels as shown in Facsimile 1:

“An intact assemblage from the Middle Kingdom fortress of Mirgissa contained the body of an executed man buried in a shallow pit along with a number of broken red clay vessels and several limestone and clay figurines of prisoners and associated images. The deposit appears to reveal the conjunction of three events: (1) a ritual called ‘breaking the red vessels,’ well attested in representations of Egyptian funerary practice; (2) an execration ritual in which certain individuals, both Egyptian and foreign, are ritually damned; (3) finally, the actual execution of a human.”

Egypt ended the practice of human sacrifice during Abraham’s lifetime, which suggests Abraham indeed had something to do with it:

“Something fundamentally changed in relation to man’s attitude toward human sacrifice, together with the elaboration of the notion that it could be replaced by animal sacrifice; just when and why this change took place cannot be answered satisfactorily in Egypt or elsewhere. Our strongest textual evidence that something had indeed changed in Egypt dates to the Middle Kingdom (beginning c. 2055 BC).”

9. The text at the bottom of Facsimile 3 reads: “O gods of the necropolis, gods of the caverns, gods of the south, north, west, and east, grant salvation to the Osiris Hor, the justified, born by Talkhibit.” This matches very closely to 2 Nephi 29. The order of cardinal directions are flipped backwards:

“I rule in the heavens above and in the earth beneath… For I command all men, both in the east and in the west, and in the north, and in the south… I will judge the world every man according to their works, according to that which is written… I covenanted with Abraham that I would remember his seed forever.”

The Facsimile is a judgement scene, and also notice that the chapter is about the covenant of Abraham. The order of cardinal directions seem random, but actually they are the same (flipped backwards): south, north, west, east, versus in Nephi: east, west, north, south.
10. Papyrus GM 5.459-489 references Abraham and several teachings in the Book of Abraham:

“I call upon thee who hath created earth and bones and all flesh and all spirit and who hath established the sea and nailed the heavens, who separated the light from the darkness [compare Abr. 4:4], the Supreme Intelligence, who lawfully governs all things [compare Facsimile 2 figures 1,3,7] , Eternal Eye, daimon of daimons [guide of guides], god of gods, the lord of the spirits, the unerring aion iao oyei [fixed planet, Jehovah–compare Facsimile 2 figure 5] –hear my voice.

I call upon thee, master of the gods, high-thundering Zeus… in Hebrew: ablanathanalba abrasiloa! For I am silthachoouch lailal blasaloth iao ieo barouch adonai eloai abraam barbarauo nausiph [‘Blessed is my Lord, the God of Abraham‘], high-minded one, immortal, who possess the crown of the whole world.”

11. There are 23 significant differences between the Book of Abraham and Genesis from the bible. Recently discovered ancient documents back up the Book of Abraham on each issue. Joseph Smith did not have access to any of these sources.

The Book of Jubilees from the Dead Sea Scrolls includes 15 striking parallels not found in the bible:

  • Idolatry was prevalent in Ur, caused the people to sin
  • (Jubilees 11:3-6,16)

  • Abraham’s fathers were idolatrous and learned astrology
  • (Jubilees 11:7-10,16)

  • Learned to write from his father
  • (Jubilees 11:16)

  • Rejected his father’s worship of idols
  • (Jubilees 11:16)

  • Prayed for God’s help to be saved from evil, and sought God in prayer
  • (Jubilees 11:17, 12:17-20)

  • Turned back a famine
  • (Jubilees 11:18-22)

  • Preached to his father against idolatry
  • (Jubilees 12:1-7)

  • Abraham’s father warned he would die for preaching against idolatry
  • (Jubilees 12:7)

  • Destroyd idols (Monotheism spread in Abraham’s lifetime, as pointed out in detail in the book The Eighth Day, The Hidden History of the Jewish Contribution to Civiliation.)
  • (Jubilees 12:12)

  • Observed the “hand of the Lord” in astronomy
  • (Jubilees 12:16)

  • Copied his father’s book of knowledge and obtained books of his forefathers
  • (Jubilees 21:10)

  • Taught his children to reject idols
  • (Jubilees 20:7-9)

  • Referred to idols as “gods of wood or stone”
  • (Jubilees 22:18, compare Abr. 1:11)

  • Warned Jacob not to marry Canaanites because of the “sin of Ham”
  • (Jubilees 22:20, 12:21)

  • Abraham’s words were written and read by Joseph

(Jubilees 39:6)

12. Many books written by or about Abraham have been discovered. Archaeologists once thought Abraham was not literate:

  • Apocalypse of Abraham, Testament of Abraham, Book of Jashar, Jubilees, 10 Books of Abraham (mentioned by al-Masudi), Book of Abraham (mentioned by Fimicus Maternus), Abraham’s treatise on astronomy (mentioned by Vettius Valens)
13. The attempt on Abraham’s life is explained in recently discovered ancient literature, with striking parallel details not found in the bible:

  • The Tanna debe Eliyahu tells of Abraham being put in bonds and the attempt to kill him by fire because he refused to worship idols
  • Targum Jonathan: “It came to pass, when Nimrod cast Abram into the furnace of fire because he would not worship his idol, the fire had no power to burn him.”
  • Targum Neofiti: “They went out from the furance of fire of the Chaldeans’…
  • Genesis Rabban: “He (Terah) took him (Abraham) and gave him over to Nimrod. (Nimrod) said to him: Let us worship the fire!… I shall therefore cast you in it, and let your God to whom you bow come and save you from it!”
  • Midrash Rabbah explains Nirmod cast Barham into the fire because of his opposition to idolatry.
  • Book of Jashar: “And they brought them both, Abram and Haran his brother, to cast them into the fire; and all the inhabitants of the land and the king’s servants and princes and all the women and little ones were there, standing that day over them. And the king’s servants took Abram and his brother, and they stripped them of all their clothes excepting their lower garments which were upon them. [See Figure 2 in Facsimile 1.] And they bound their hands and feet with linen cords, and the servants of the king lifted them up and cast them both into the furnace. And the Lord loved Abram and he had compassion over him, and the Lord came down and delivered Abram from the fire and he was not burned. But all the cords with which they bound him were burned, while Abram remained and walked about in the fire.”
  • The Story of Abraham our Father from What Happened to Him with Nimrod says king Nimrod attempted to kill Abraham several times, and finally catapulted him into the fire. (See pp. 164-174)
  • Venerable Bede: Abraham was thrown in the fire for refusing to worship idols but was rescued by the Lord. “…among the Hebrews, truly, Ur means fire. They tell that he would have been consumed in the fire of the Chaldeans because it seemed that when Abraham, knowing the true God more than his brother, he refused to worship the fire, which they worship; and therefore both were cast into the fire by the Chaldeans…”
  • Jerome: “Abraham was sent to the fire because he did not want to worship the fire that the Chaldeans worshiped, and being rescued by the help of God, escaped the fire of idolatry.” Commentarium in Genesim repeats this account. Alcun adds: “the tradition of the Hebrews is true that Thare (sic) and his sons came out of the fire of the Chaldeans…”
  • Al-Nisaburi: “When he was in the securely in the midst of the fire, the King, may He be exalted, made the fire cool for him.”
  • Exposito super septem visiones libri apocalypsis: “…as gold is known to be tried in the furnace: so Abraham, who was brought out of the fire of the Chaldees.”
  • Christian Chronicle: “And Nemrod threw Abraham into a fiery furnace because he did not approve the worship of idols, but he flame of the furnace was changed into pleasant dew.”
  • Rabanus Maurus: “..from when he was rescued from the fire of the Chaldeans into the which was cast to burn because he did not want to worship the fire.”
  • Catena Severi: “Abraham took fire in his zeal and burnt that famous temple of Qainan, the graven image of the Chaldeans… When the Chaldeans realized what Abraham had done, they were compelling Terah to hand over his son Abraham to them to death. …he began his flight then with all his household, and they left Ur of the Chaldeans…”
  • De Trinitate ed operibus ejus : “Concerning Abraham, who (as the majority assert) by the help of God was rescued from Ur of the Chaldeans, that is, from fire.”
14. Abraham’s deliverance by angels is explained in recently discovered ancient literature. These accounts correlate the delivering angel shown in Facsimile 1:

  • Biblical Antiquities: “And they took him and built a furnance and kindled it with fire… But God stirred up a great earthquake, and the fire gushed forth from the furnace and brake out into flames and sparks of fire and consumed all them that stood round about in sight of the furnace; 83,500. But upon Abram was there not any the least hurt by the burning of the fire. And Abram arose out of the furnace, and the fiery furnace fell down, and Abram was saved.”
  • Tanna debe Eliyahu: “And at that time the entire household of Terah were idolaters; not one of them acknowledged his Creator. And so all of Terah’s neighbor came and jeeringly tapped him on the head, saying to him: ‘You have been put to bitter shame! That son of yours, of whom you have been saying that he was to be heir of this world and of the world-to-come, Nimrod is having him consumed by fire!’ At once the compassion of the Holy One welled up , and the holiness of His great name came down from the upper heaven of heavens [See the concept of heave in Facsimile 2], from the place of His glory, His grandeur, and His beauty and delivered our father Abraham from the taunts and jeers and from the fiery furnace.”
  • Midrash Rabbah says the angel Michael and Gabriel offered to go down to rescue Abraham from the fire, but “God came down and delivered him” instead.
  • Babyloanian Talmud: “…because it was said that when Nimrod the wicked threw Abraham our father into the fiery furnace, the angel Gabriel said to the Lord: ‘Permit me to go and make the furnace cold, that it may do no harm to Abraham,’ and the Holy One, blessed be He, replied: ‘Abraham is now the only one who has forsaken idolatry and believes in God, and I am the only One in the world, hence it would be but fair that the only One should rescue the other exception,’ and as the Holy One, blessed be He, would not deprive any one creature of the reward due, He said to Gabriel: ‘Thou shalt have an opportunity to rescue thee of his children from the fiery furnace, while I Myself shall rescue him.”
  • The Story of Abraham our Father from What Appended to Him with Nimrod says God sent the angel Gabriel to save Abraham from Nimrod because of Abraham’s prayer and opposition to idolatry. (see pp.167-174)
  • A Study (Midrash) of Abraham our Father says God sent the angel Michael to save Abraham from the furnace, declaring “My glory shall rescue him.”
  • Alcuin says Abraham “surrounded by the conflagration in Babylon because he did not want to worship it, was freed by the help of God.”
  • Muslim scholar Ibn Kathir said Abraham was bound for breaking the idols, catapulted into the fire, and delivered by God with the assistance of the angel Jibril (Gabriel) and other angels. Jibril later initiated Abraham through sacred ordinances.
  • Islamic legends: “The star that would rob king Namrud of his glory was to be the Prophet Abraham… Abraham said that his God could do anything, the king led the way to the royal cemetery. Here, Abraham knelt down in prayer and lo (…) the tomb opened and there rose up the old king and still clinging to his shroud but his eyes looking fiercely at his son, whom he addressed in a hollow but recognizable voice: ‘Peace be upon you; listen to this young man and follow his advice for he is the chosen prophet of the One God. Do not heed the priests and their useless idols… the king ordered that it must be kept burning for a week. An angel descended from Heaven with a sharp knife and quickly cut the ropes that tied Abraham, but he would not go away. ‘My Lord placed me here. he will take me away.'”
  • Muslim scholar Rawandi says Abraham was “unharmed and untied from his shackled” after being thrown in the fire. “Nimrud remained for a few days not doubting that the fire had consumed Ibrahim. So he looked as if he watched the fire while it was burning furiously, and Ibrahim was sitting next to a man in his likeness.”
15. The idolatry of Abraham’s fathers is explained in recently discovered ancient literature, with striking parallel details:

  • Damascus Document: “And not to go about in the thoughts of an evil imagination… By them went astray the sons of Noah and their families. Because of them they were cut off Abraham did not walk in them, And he was (recorded) friend because he kept the commandments of God.”
  • Pirkei Avot: “There were ten generations from Noah to Abraham, to show how great was His patience, for every one of those generations provoked Him continually until Abraham, our father, came and received the reward of them all.”
  • Apocalypse of Abraham: “I Abraham, at the time when my lot came, when I was completing my services of my father Terah that he had given me, and I was preparing his sacrifice to his gods of wood, of stone, of gold, of silver, of copper, and of iron, and it was about this time I began to wonder, which of the gods were in truth the strongest.”
  • Eliyahu Rabbah 27: “Keep in mind that the household of Abraham’s father, idolaters all, used to make idols and go out and sell them in the marketplace.”
  • Midrash Rabbah: “Terah was a manufacturer of idols.”
  • Book of Jasher: “And the king and all his servants, and Terah with all his household were then the first of those that served gods of wood and stone. And Terah had twelve gods of large size, made of wood and stone, after the twelve months of the year, and served each one monthly, and every month Terah would bring his meat offering and drink offering to his gods; thus did Terah all the days. And all that generation were wicked in the sight of the Lord, and they thus made every man his god, but they forsook the Lord who had created them.”
  • George Hamartolos: “Terah lived 135 years… And he was a sculptor, molding and selling gods from stone and wood.”
  • Conflict of Adam and Eve with Satan: “Ut, the son of Kesed, built a city which he called Ara, where he set up the worship of a host of heaven and idols, and taught men to worship them…. Terah, who was the first to make idols of clay.”
  • Michael Patriarch of the Syrians: “Serug taught Nahor the Chaldean doctrine of sorcery and
    divination by the star signs… [Ninus] fashioned large idols of silver and gold for his father Belus’ [statues], and had him worshipped… Abraham burned the idol house of his father which was in Edessa (Ur’ha).”
  • Michael Glycas says Abraham’s great-grandfather Serug (Serouch) promoted idolatry.
  • Epiphanius: “Serug, which means ‘provoked,’ from whom idolatry and Hellenism began among men (as the knowledge which has come to me has it.)”
  • Georgius Cedrenus says Terah and his family had idols.
  • Kebra Nagast: “I Terah… had a son whose name was Abram… his father sent him off to sell idols.”
  • George Syncellus says Terah worshiped idols and Abraham destroyed them.
  • Al-Tabari says Terah made idols and gave them to his sons to sell.
  • Ibn Kathir: “He (the father) said: ‘Do you revile my gods, O Ibrahim [Abraham]? If you stop not (this), I will La’arjumannak. So get away from me Maliyan.”
  • Pesikta Rabbati: “He, saw all the generations that worshipped idols, (saw) Abraham rise up and separate himself form the generations because he would not be like them; (saw) that while they worshipped idols, Abraham rose up and learned wisdom by himself so that he came to worship the Holy One, blessed be He.”
  • Book of Jasher: “… and all the sons of the earth in those days greatly transgressed against the Lord, and they rebelled against him and they served other gods… and the inhabitants of the earth made unto themselves, at that time, every man his god, gods of wood and stone.”
  • Book of the Cave of Treasures: “Some of them through their error adored the heavens, and some of them worshipped the sun, and moon and stars, and some of them the earth, and wild beasts, and birds, and creeping thigs, and trees, and stones, and the creatures of the sea, and the waters, and the winds… And error having been sown broadcast in all the earth, and the land became filled with idols in the form of men and women.”
  • Michael Glycas says crocodiles were specifically worshiped.
  • Book of the Rolls says earthquakes and winds destroyed idols, and child sacrifice was practiced.
  • Symeon Logothetes: “He alone, of those everywhere suffering from the errors of idols, recognized the true God.”
  • Michael the Syrian says God destroyed idols with a great storm after Abraham burned his father’s idols.
16. Terah’s attempt to kill his son Abraham is explained in recently discovered ancient literature, with striking parallel details:

  • Rashi: “Terah had complained of Abram his son before Nimrod that he had broken his images, and he cast him into a furnace of fire.”
  • Chronicles of Jerahmeel: “When Terah arrived home and found his idols burnt, he went to Abraham… Thereupon Terah took Abraham, our ancestor, and went with him to Nimrod. And Terah said to Nimrod, ‘O my lord the king, judge this my son who has burned my gods.”
  • Surah 19: “Do you hate my gods, O Ibrahim [Abraham]? If you do not forbear, I will indeed stone you to death.”
17. Terah’s repentance is explained in recently discovered ancient literature:

  • Tanna debe Eliyahu: “[After Abraham’s deliverance], Terah, for the sake of Heaven, proceeded to quit his dwelling place.”
  • Chronicles of Jerahmeel: “Abram, who did not worship, and who did not bow down to the idol, was saved from the fire of the Chaldeans and was not burnt…. When Terah saw that God delivered Abram, he deserted his former faith, and went forth with him (Abram) to dwell in a foreign country.”
  • Ibn Al-Tayyib: “Terah had already started for the promised land, and yet he remained at Haran, because his intention was not pure like that of Abraham, who was the first to turn away from the cultic objects, that is, the idols. Neither Nahor nor Bethuel nor Laban converted perfectly, even after having learned that God had helped Abraham so magnificently.”
  • The Story of Abraham our Father from What Appended to Him with Nimrod says Abraham urged his father to reject idolatry.
18. Child sacrifice is revealed in recently discovered ancient literature:

  • Kebra Nagast: “…and after him Tara (Terah) reigned. And these are they who made magical images… and a devil used to hold converse with that out of each of the images of their fathers, and say unto them, ‘O my son So-and-so, offer up unto me as a sacrifice the son whom thou lovest.’ And they slaughtered their sons and their daughters to the devils.”
  • Book of the Cave of Treasures: “And behold, from that time the children of men began to sacrifice their sons to devils and to worship idols, for the devils entered into the images, and took up their abodes therein.”
  • Conflict of Adam and Eve with Satan: “Then in the hundredth year of Nahor, God looked down upon the children of men [and saw] that they sacrificed their children to idols. Then God commanded the stores of winds to open, and to send forth the whirlwind, and gales, and darkness upon the whole face of the earth.”
  • Al-Biruni: “But after having done it, he repented and wished to sacrifice his son to the planet Saturn, it being their custom to sacrifice their children, as that author maintains.”
  • Chronicles of Jerahmeel: “The Chaldeans came to dip both Haran and Abram in the fire, for they were accustomed to dip them in the fire, just as some nations dip their sons in the water… As soon as the astrologers saw Abraham they recognised him at once, and said to Nimrod, ‘O lord the king, this is the child of whom we spoke on the day of his birth, and whom thou didst desire to slay. If it be thy will, we shall bring thee wood and burn him to death.”
19. Abraham’s possession of his forefathers’ records are explained in recently discovered literature:

  • Genesis Apocryphon: Abraham reads “the [Book] of the Words of Enoch and …the words of Noah.”
  • Book of Noah says Abraham received a book of wisdom passed down all the way back to Adam.
20. Abraham received the priesthood from his fathers, according to recently discovered ancient literature:

  • Pesikta Rabbati: “Abraham said to God: ‘Master of the universes, am I fit to offer Isaac up? Am I a priest? Shem is High Priest. Let him come and take Isaac from me for the offering.’ God replied: When thou reachest the place, I will consecrate thee and make thee a priest. Accordingly, the term Moriah suggests that Abraham was to be a substitute for Shem, his replacement.”
  • Al-Biruni says “Henana says that Abraham was a high priest and son of a high priest.”
  • Midrash Rabbah: “Now, Abraham said HERE AM I–ready for priesthood, ready for kingship, and he attained priesthood and kingship. He attained priesthood, as is says, The Lord hath sworn, and will not repent: Thou are a priest for ever after the manner of Melchizedek; kingship: Thou art a mighty prince among us.”
21. Abraham converted souls according to recently discovered ancient literature:

  • Rabbi Nathan says Abraham decided to “devote himself to converting his fellow creatures,” as indicated in Genesis 12:5 which says there were people Abraham “had gotten in Haran.”
  • Midrash Rabbah: “‘And Abram took Sarai his wife, and Lot his brother’s son, and all their possessions which they had gathered, and the person that they had gotten in Haran’… what is meant is the helping of people to convert to Judaism… Abraham our father used to bring them [people] into his house and give them food and drink and be friendly to them and attract them and covert them and bring them under the wings of the Shechinah.”
  • Al-Kisai: “Abraham travelling from Mesopotamia to convert the people of Palestine.”
22. Abraham taught astronomy to the king of Egypt, according to recently discovered ancient literature:

  • Artapanus: “Abraham… came to Egypt with all his household to the Egyptian king Pharethothes and taught him astrology.”
  • Eupolemus: “Abraham excelled all in nobility and wisdom; he sought and obtained the knowledge of astrology and the Chaldean craft, and pleased God… [He taught] the Phoenicians the cycles of the sun and moon… He explained astrology and the other sciences to [the Egyptian priests], saying that the Babylonians and he himself had obtained this knowledge… Enoch first discovered astrology, not the Egyptians.”
  • Babylonian Talmud: “Abraham possessed a power of reading the stars for which he was much sought after by the potentates of East and West… He possessed an astrological instrument.”
  • Chronicles of Jerahmeel: “Abram was able to foretell the future by the observance of the stars, and was very wise in astrology. He taught his magic science to Zoroastres, the philosopher, and he saw from the planets that the order of the world was not as before, for the order of creation was changed… Abraham was exceedingly great in magic, so much so that all the kings of the East and West waited upon him.”
  • George Syncellus said from Abraham, “the Egyptians learned the place of the stars and their movements and the mathematical science.”
  • Pseudo-Clementine Recognitions describes Abraham as “the culture-hero and teacher of the Egyptians; and Abraham the astrologer (or astronomer), who discovers the one true God through observation of the orderly motions of the stars.”
  • Ioannes Zonaras said the Egyptians “marveled over his understanding, he taught the Egyptians mathematics and astronomy.”
  • Vettius Valens said Abraham wrote “books about this subject” of astrology (astronomy).
23. Abraham desired to possess great knowledge, according to recently discovered ancient literature:

  • Philo of Alexandria: “Of the number of these men is Abraham, who attained to great progress and improvement in the comprehension of complete knowledge.”
  • Clementine Recognitions: “Therefore Abraham, when he was desirous to learn the causes of things, and was intently pondering upon what had been told him [by an angel], the true Prophet appeared to him, who alone knows the hearts and purpose of men, and disclosed to him all things which he desired. He taught him the knowledge of the Divinity; intimated the origin of the world and likewise its end; showed him the immortality of the soul and the manner of life which was pleasing to God; declared also the resurrection of the dead, the future judgment, the reward of the good, the punishment of the evil, – all to be regulated by righteous judgment: and having given him all this information plainly and sufficiently, He departed again to the invisible abodes.”
24. God warned Abraham that the Egyptians would steal his beautiful wife, according to recently discovered ancient literature. The Genesis Apocryphon says “Abraham’s idea to deliver Sara is motivated by a dream… After waking up from this dream, Abraham concludes the following: the dream refers to a situation in which Abraham shall be killed but Sara shall be spared.”

25. God showed Abraham the heavens and pre-mortal souls of men, according to recently discovered ancient literature:

  • Sefer Yetzirah: “When Abraham our father understood, formed, permuted, probed, thought and was successful, the Blessed Holy One revealed Himself to him, declaring to him, ‘Before I formed you in the womb, I knew you, and before and emerged form the womb, I sanctified you.'”
  • Apocalypse of Abraham: “And I saw there a multitude of spiritual angels, incorporeal, carrying out the orders of the fiery angels who were on the eighth firmament… And he said to me, ‘Look now beneath your feet at the firmament and understand the creation that was depicted of old on this example, (and) the creatures which are in it and the age prepared after it… And (I saw) there the earth and its fruit, and its moving things and its things that had souls, and its host of men… Sit and write all the souls of mankind, however many of them are born, and the places prepared for them to eternity, for all souls are prepared to eternity, before the formation of the world… Those on the right side of the picture are the people set apart for me of the people with Azazel; these are the ones I have prepared to be born of you and to be called my people.”
26. Kings honored Abraham on a throne, according to recently discovered ancient literature:

  • Book of Jasher: “It is incumbent upon us to make him great, to elevate him and to do unto him all the good which thou shalt command us; and at that time the king sent to Abram silver and gold and precious stones in abundance, together with cattle, men servants and maid servants; and the king ordered Abram to be brought, and he sat in the court of the king’s house, and the king greatly exalted Abram on that night.”
  • Midrash Rabbah says Abraham was seated up high on a platform as “king of the world.”
  • Chronicles of Jerahmeel: “Now, it came to pass, when Abram came from Babylon–i.e.,Ur of the Chaldees–he betook himself to Damascus, he and his household, and he was made king over that city… all the kings of the East and West waited upon him.”
27. The famine in Chaldea is described in recently discovered ancient literature:

  • Bar Hebraeus: “And when Abraham was fifteen years of age he entreated God and drove away the karkase (ravens? locusts?) which were destroying the country of the Chaldeans and eating up their crops.”
  • Jacob of Edessa says there was a “great famine over the earth in the time of Terah, and the people were barely able to save any of the seed that was sown in the ground because of the multitude of the ravens and birds that God sent upon the land.”
  • Qisas al-anbiya: “Then God took away the rain from them, and Nimrod was left in dire straits.”
28. In the Story of Abraham, young Abraham worshiped the moon god Levanah, which is very close to the idolatrous god “Libnah” from the Book of Abraham. Levanah derives from the male Canaanite god Yerah. In Egyptian the “L” and “R” are identical, so this could be “Yelah”, which similar to the moon god “Olea” mentioned in the Book of Abraham.

29. Babylonian Talmud: “Abraham had a precious stone hung round his neck which brought immediate healing to any sick person who looked on it, and when Abraham our father left this world, the Blessed Holy One hung it from the wheel of the sun.” This perfectly matches the Urim and Thummim stone that Abraham has in the Book of Abraham, as the name Urim and Thummim possibly derives from “complete sun.”

30. Clementine Recognitions: “He (Abraham), when the whole world was again subject to various errors… having studied astronomy, was able from the logic and order of the starts to perceive the creator and understood that everything that was governed by his providence.” It reports God revealed details of the Creation to Abraham, which matches the creation explanation given to Abraham in the Book of Abraham.

31. Question: “The sons of Ham made a king for themselves out of their own number, whose name was Pontipus.” A descendant of Ham founded Egypt, according to the Book of Abraham. Muslim tradition is that a son of Ham founded Africa as king of Egypt, and was not idolatrous.

32. Artapinus calls the king of Egypt “Pharethothes.” Question calls the first king of Egypt “Pontipus,” a Greek version of whatever it really was. The Book of Abraham just calls them both “Pharaoh.” Bar Hebraeus likewise just calls him Pharoah: “And there rose up also a sixth king in Egypt, Pharaoh Apintos; [he reigned] thirty and two years. This king sent to Kasaronos, the Parthian king, and he brought the writings and the doctrine (religion?) of the Chaldees to Egypt.” The “Egyptians learned Chaldeeism, and they made an image of gold in honour of Kinos, the idol.” This proves the Egyptian influence over Chaldea, a claim which archaeologists long scorned from the Book of Abraham.”

33. Apocalypse of Abraham says God’s throne is at the eighth and highest firmament of heaven, which matches the Book of Abraham‘s geocentric perspective of the universe, with the earth in the center rather than the sun.

34. The Book of Abraham says priesthood keys go along with the Gospel of Abraham:

“I will bless them through thy name; for as many as receive this Gospel shall be called after thy name, and shall rise up and bless thee, as their father… and in thee (that is, thy Priesthood)… even with the blessings of the Gospel, which are the blessings of salvation, even of life eternal.” (Abr 2:10-11)

The Egyptian Book of Breathings, which was discovered alongside the Book of Abraham source, lays out the biblical Gospel as a requirement for priesthood power:

“The hearts of the gods are content with all that he has done. He has given bread to the hungry, water to the thirsty, clothing to the naked. He has given offerings to the gods and invocation offerings to the blessed dead. There is no accusation against him before any of the gods. Let him enter into the afterlife without being turned away.”